There are four broad areas of special educational need, these are:
Communication and Interaction
- Delay in attention / Interaction Skills—children may have difficulties ignoring distractions and may need regular prompts to stay on task. They may find whole class work difficult. They may need individualised motivation in order to complete tasks. These children may have peer relationship issues or may not be able to initiate or maintain a conversation.
- Understanding / Receptive Language—children may need visual support to understand or process spoken language. Children may repeat language.
- Speech / Expressive Language—children may use simplified language and use limited vocabulary. Ideas and conversations may be difficult to follow, with the need to request further clarification. Some immaturities are in the sound system. Grammar/phonological awareness is still fairly poor and therefore literacy can be affected.
- This area of need includes children with Autism Spectrum Condition and those with Speech, Language and Communication Needs.
Cognition and Learning
- Children may have difficulties with the skills needed for effective learning such as use of: language, memory and reasoning skills; sequencing and organisation skills; an understanding of number; problem-solving; fine and gross motor skills; independent learning skills; exercising choice; decision making and information processing.
- This includes children with Specific Learning Difficulties, Moderate Learning Difficulties, Severe Learning Difficulties and Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties
Social, Emotional and Mental Health Difficulties
- Children may have difficulties with social and emotional development which may lead to or stem from: social Isolation; behavioural difficulties; attention difficulties; anxiety and depression; attachment disorders; low self-esteem and issues with self-image.
- This includes any pupils who have an emotional, social or mental health need that is impacting on their ability to learn
Sensory and/or Physical Difficulties
- These pupils may have a medical or genetic condition that could lead to difficulties with: specific medical conditions; gross and fine motor skills; visual or hearing impairment; accessing the curriculum without adaptation; physically accessing the school building or equipment; oversensitivity to noise / smells / light / touch / taste and issues with toilet / self-care.
- This area includes children with hearing impairment, visual impairment, multi-sensory impairment and physical difficulties.